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Direct Potable Reuse


This section includes information and resources about direct potable reuse (DPR), which involves the planned introduction of recycled water either directly into a public water system or into a raw water supply upstream of a water treatment plant.


Water researchers and practitioners are interested in DPR because it can be used to augment current drinking water supplies (such as surface water, groundwater, or imported water) with a local, abundant, and reliable source of water.


For information about water reuse in general, click here.






Recycled Water To Faucets?

This video was prepared by the Central Basin Municipal Water District in August 2013. To some, recycled water raises a "yuck factor." Jeff Mosher, NWRI Executive Director, talks about the challenges and perceptions of recycled water. It's all part of a "behind the scenes" look at Central Basin's Caucus Speakers. Watch the video on YouTube.




Trends in Indirect and Direct Potable Reuse

George Tchobanoglous of the University of California Davis speaks on "Trends in Indirect and Direct Potable Reuse" at the 2012 NWRI Clarke Prize Conference on "Research and Innovations in Urban Water Sustainability." The conference was held by NWRI in November 2012.  Bruce Rittmann of Arizona State University provides an introduction.  Watch the video on YouTube.






NWRI White Paper on "Direct Potable Reuse: Benefits for Public Water Supplies, Agriculture, the Environment, and Energy Conservation"

By Edward Schroeder, University of California, Davis, et al.

This 20-page NWRI White Paper (2012) focuses on the role that direct potable reuse (DPR) can have in the management of water resources in the future. Using a case study based on Southern California, the authors point out that the potential benefits accrued for agriculture, environmental preservation and enhancement, and energy conservation through the application of DPR may be more important than its ability to provide an alternative water supply. Click here to download the white paper.


WateReuse Report on “Direct Potable Reuse: A Path Forward”

By George Tchobanoglous, University of California, Davis, et al.

This 102-page report identifies the information and research needed to provide a basis for the feasibly of implementing direct potable reuse (DPR) in California. Topics discussed include issues regarding public acceptance, engineering, economics, and regulations. WateReuse Research Foundation and WateReuse California published this report in 2011.  Click here to download the report.


Direct Potable Reuse Workshop: Workshop Report

This 41-page report was prepared by California Urban Water Agencies, National Water Research Institute, and WateReuse California to summarize the results of a workshop held on April 26-27, 2010, for the purpose of identifying information gaps and existing barriers that need to be addressed to develop direct potable reuse regulations in California. Information gathered from this workshop is expected to help support the needs of water, wastewater, and recycled water agencies in long-term planning and in prioritizing research-related activities.  To download the workshop report, click here.


direct potable

NWRI White Paper on "Regulatory Aspects of Direct Potable Reuse in California"

By James Crook, Ph.D., P.E., Environmental Engineering Consultant

This 32-page White Paper published by NWRI in April 2010 identifies key issues that would need to be addressed by regulatory agencies and utilities in California interested in pursuing direct potable reuse as a viable option to satisfy future water demands. To download the NWRI White Paper, click here.






CUWA/WateReuse/NWRI Direct Potable Reuse Workshop

Held April 26-27, 2010, in Sacramento, California


This workshop report summarizes comments made at the Direct Potable Reuse Workshop, which was held by the California Urban Water Agencies (CUWA), WateReuse Association California Section, and NWRI. These organizations collaborated to provide a forum to work on issues related to direct potable reuse topics, identify areas of potential collaboration, and avoid duplicative efforts.


Click here to download the workshop report (41 pages).




Panel membersWorkshop for NWRI Panel Examining the Criteria for Direct Potable Reuse

Held August 29, 2012, in Los Angeles, California


A WateReuse Foundation Project (WRF-11-02) was undertaken by Trussell Technologies, Inc. to assess the equivalency of advanced treatment trains for DPR and determine what modifications are necessary to satisfy public health criteria.


As part of this effort, Trussell Tech retained NWRI to coordinate an Independent Advisory Panel to lead a 2-day workshop in 2012 to develop a set of criteria that are protective of public health to evaluate treatment technologies for DPR. The final product is a Panel report published in 2013 by NWRI and the WateReuse Foundation.


Please click here for more information, including downloads of the workshop presentation slides.